First, before you ask, I do not know why there are hundreds of citation styles. In each discipline, researchers decide what elements of identifying information are most important to them and the style they develop reflects that.
Here are citations from your syllabus:
RAAT, W. Dirk, (2012) “World History, MesoAmerica, and the Native American Southwest by W. Dirk Raat”, History Compass 10/7 (2012): 537–548
I know this is an article because there are page numbers. The 10/7 refers to a volume and issue number. All periodicals (magazines, newspapers and journals) have volume and issue numbers.
MORSE, Richard (1988) “Cites and People” Rethinking the Latin American City, edited by Richard Morse and Jorge E. Hardoy (Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press) pp. 3-20.
This has page numbers - but it's not an article. It's a chapter from a book. Books that contain the work of multiple authors can have editors. Books are published by presses in a particular city.