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KIN 327T - Clinical Exercise Testing

Citing Sources

Understanding Citations

The purpose of a citation is to provide the reader with information to find the source of the author's facts or ideas. A citation includes, at the very least, the title, author, source of publication, and date of publication. 

Citation styles are sets of guidelines that determine how papers and citations are formatted. Different disciplines favor certain styles, for this class, you will use the AMA (American Medical Association) Manual of Style.

When to cite

To avoid plagiarism, you should cite a source when:

  • You use another author's words, which should be included in quotation marks
  • You paraphrase an author's ideas in your own words
  • You summarize a study or paper
  • You include an author's name/talk about a researcher or particular study
  • You refer to an idea or concept that is not original to you

Remember, it's not just words that can be plagiarized, but thoughts and ideas too. If in doubt, err on the side of citation.

Find out more about plagiarism on the next page.

Citing in AMA

In-text Citations

AMA requires a superscript for cited sources that correspond with the reference list at the end of the paper.

Superscripts should appear in arabic numerals outside periods or commas, but inside colons or semicolons. Regardless of how often a work is cited, it should always be given the same number.

  • The angle of the ankle does not differ between initial heel contact and flat foot contact among walking toddlers.1
  • Among walking toddlers,1 the angle of the ankle does not differ between initial heel contact and flat foot contact.
  • There is no difference in ankle angle between the following types of toddler walking1: initial heel contact (IHC) and flat foot contact (FFC).

Reference List

For the AMA style reference list, citations should be placed in the order in which they occur above and correspond to the in-text number given to them.


  • Author - should include last name followed by initials with no punctuation; commas separate authors; for more than 6 authors, use et al
  • Article Title - Capitalize only the first letter of the first word, proper names, and acronyms; do not put titles in quotes
  • Journal Title - Titles of journals should be italicized and abbreviated according to PubMed journal abbreviations
  • Year
  • Volume
  • Issue
  • Page numbers
  • DOI


  • Last FM I, Last FM II, Last FM III, et al. Title of article: with subtitle. Abbrv J Title. Year;Vol(Issue):p-p. doi:##/##


  1. Zeininger A, Schmitt D, Jensen JL, Shapiro LJ. Ontogenetic changes in foot strike pattern and calcaneal loading during walking in young children. Gait Posture‚Äč. 2018;59:18-22. doi:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2017.09.027

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Not sure how to cite something?

There is not always an exact rule for every situation. If you're not sure how to cite something, try using a citation manager or find an article that has already cited that source and use their citation as a guide for your own.

Tip: To find out if the article you're using has been cited in another paper, search for it in Google Scholar. Click "Cited by" underneath the article description.

Note: These citations might not be in APA, but they should at least give you all of the information you need, which you can then format according to APA style.

Google Scholar Search

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