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Data Management

This guide is to help you prepare a data management plan.

How to Cite a Dataset

Citing Data

Data Set

Basic form:
Author/Rightsholder. (Year). Title of data set (Version number) [Description of form]. Location: Name of producer.
Author/Rightsholder. (Year). Title of data set (Version number) [Description of form]. Retrieved from http://

Pew Hispanic Center. (2008). 2007 Hispanic Healthcare Survey [Data file and code book]. Retrieved from

Data Set from a download site

Pew Hispanic Center. (2008). 2007 Hispanic Healthcare Survey [Data file and code book]. Available from Pew Hispanic Center Website:

Note: Available from, rather than Retrieved from, indicates the URL takes you to a download site, rather than directly to the data file.


Unpublished Raw Data from study, untitled work

Basic form: 
Author, F. N. (Year). [Description of study topic]. Unpublished raw data.

Smith, J.A. (2006). [Personnel survey]. Unpublished raw data.


Graphic Representation of Data

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2005). [Interactive map showing percentage of respondents reporting "no" to, During the past month, did you participate in any physical activities?]. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Retrieved from


Machine-Readable Data Files

CBS News. 2009. CBS News Poll: Energy USCBS2009-02A Version 2 [MRDF]. New York: CBS News [producer]. Storrs, CT: The Roper Center for Public Opinion Research, University of Connecticut [distributor].


Data Archive

ICPSR Data Archive

Duncan, Otis D., and Howard Schuman. Detroit Area Study, 1971: Social Problems and Social Change in Detroit [Computer file]. ICPSR07325-v2. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 1997. doi:10.3886/ICPSR07325

Read the FAQ page, Why and How Should I Cite Data?, for additional information on citing ICPSR datasets.

Manuscripts and dissertations based on ICPSR data should be submitted for inclusion in the ICPSR Bibliography of Data-Related Literature.

Roper Center for Public Opinion Research Data Archive

Cable News Network & USA Today. Gallup/CNN/USA Today Poll: Aftermath of Hurricane Katrina [computer file]. 1st Roper Center for Public Opinion Research version. Lincoln, NE: Gallup Organization [producer], 2006. Storrs, CT: The Roper Center, University of Connecticut [distributor], 2006.

Read the How to Cite Roper Center data page for additional information.

Papers published based on Roper Center data may be submitted to the Bibliography of publications using data from the Roper Center.

Dataverse Network

King, Gary; Zeng, Langche, 2007, "Replication data for: When Can History be Our Guide? The Pitfalls of Counterfactual Inference",, Harvard Dataverse, V4, UNF:3:DaYlT6QSX9r0D50ye+tXpA== [fileUNF]

Read the Data Citation page at Dataverse for additional information.

Other resources

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 2.0 Generic License.