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HED 366 - Human Sexuality

Writing & Citing

When to cite

To avoid plagiarism, you should cite a source when:

  • You use another author's words, which should be included in quotation marks
  • You paraphrase an author's ideas in your own words
  • You summarize a study or paper
  • You include an author's name/talk about a researcher or particular study
  • You refer to an idea or concept that is not original to you

Remember, it's not just words that can be plagiarized, but thoughts and ideas too. If in doubt, err on the side of citation.

Find out more about plagiarism on the next page.

How to Cite in APA

In-text Citations

APA 7th edition requires in-text citations that include the author's last name and publication year in parenthesis. If the you are directly quoting a work, you should also include the page number. See examples below.

  • 1 author: (Willingham, 2018)
  • 2 authors: (Pachankis & Goldfried, 2013)
  • 3 or more authors: (Hopkinson et al., 2016)*
  • Direct quote: (Hopkinson et al., 2016, p. 1657)


For the APA style bibliography, citations should be placed in alphabetical order by the last name of the first author. If you are citing an article without a specified author, use the Article Title. Capitalize only the first letter of the first word, proper names, and acronyms in the article title. Use only initials for authors' first and middle names. Write out all author names up to 20 authors.* For more than 20 authors, use ellipses.


1st author last name, first initial, 2nd author last name,
first initial. (year). Article title. Journal title, volume
(issue), page #s. DOI


Miller, A., Hess, J., Bybee, D., & Goodkind, J. (2018).
Understanding the mental health consequences of
family separation for refugees: Implications for policy
and practice. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry,
88(1),26-37. doi:10.1037/ort0000272

Note: * indicates 7th edition updates

Citations and Style Help

As of October 2019, the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association has been updated to its 7th edition. This edition includes some notable changes from the 6th edition.

A citation manager can help you organize your sources and easily add them to your literature review.

More information about citation managers

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More on citing Sources

Not sure how to cite something?

There is not always an exact rule for every situation. If you're not sure how to cite something, try using a citation manager or find an article that has already cited that source and use their citation as a guide for your own.

Tip: To find out if the article you're using has been cited in another paper, search for it in Google Scholar. Click "Cited by" underneath the article description.

Note: These citations might not be in APA, but they should at least give you all of the information you need, which you can then format according to APA style.

Google Scholar Search

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