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Kinesiology & Health Education

Scholarly Articles

Sources for KHE Research

Primary vs. Seconday Sources

Primary Sources

A primary source provides direct or firsthand evidence about an event, object, person, or work of art. In the natural and social sciences, primary sources are often empirical studies—research where an experiment was performed or a direct observation was made. The results of empirical studies are typically found in scholarly articles or papers delivered at conferences.

Exp: Farley, S. M., Seoh, H., Sacks, R., & Johns, M. (2014). Teen use of flavored tobacco products in New York City. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 16(11), 1518-1521. doi:10.1093/ntr/ntu126


Secondary Sources

Secondary sources describe, discuss, interpret, comment upon, analyze, evaluate, summarize, and process primary sources. Secondary source materials can be books or articles in encyclopedias, newspapers, or popular magazines, or articles found in scholarly journals that discuss or evaluate someone else's original research.

Exp: Forsyth, S. R., Kennedy, C., & Malone, R. E. (2013). The effect of the Internet on teen and young adult tobacco use: A literature review. Journal Of Pediatric Health Care, 27(5), 367-376. doi:10.1016/j.pedhc.2012.02.008

PR Newswire. (2016, October 11). Major E-cigarette Study Finds Strong Association between Teen Vaping and Smoking. PR Newswire US.


Learn more here: Primary and Secondary Sources, Ithaca College Library

What is a library database?

Your instructor or subject librarian may throw around the term "library database" a lot, but what exactly do they mean? This video from RMIT University in Australia explains the term and how you can use databases for research.

Transcript available through YouTube.

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Where's the Article?

If you don’t see a .pdf of the article you want, click Find it to find it in another database or in print in the Libraries.

If it is only in print in the Libraries or we don’t own the article, click Get scan to have the article emailed to you. This option will take a few days.

Troubleshooting Electronic Resources

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 2.0 Generic License.