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U.S. Census Data

Census Resources by Year

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This table includes links to our old library catalog pages, and we are in the process of getting them updated. If you need help finding these items in the meantime, please contact Bill Kopplin, government documents librarian.

Print Resources By Year

Geographic Levels: Arranged by county, then by location within county. Reports are available for Connecticut, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Vermont and Virginia

Data: Gives the numbers of persons in each household characterized by the questions found in "Return of the Whole Number of Persons Within the Several Districts of the United States" (see above). Surnames are not in alphabetical order in the tables, but an index is provided for each volume. Returns for Delaware, Georgia, Kentucky, New Jersey and Tennessee were destroyed when the Capitol building was burned in 1812.

Geographic Levels: Nation, states, counties, and towns

Data: Sex, Age (of free white males 16 & over, under 16), Other free persons, Slaves

Geographic Levels:   Nation, states, counties, and towns
Data: Sex, Age, All other free persons (except Indians not taxed), Slaves
For Free White Males and Females, reports the number of persons under age 10, 10-15, 16-25, 26-44, 45-.

Geographic Levels:   Nation, states, counties, and towns or townships
Data: Sex, Age, All other free persons (except Indians not taxed), Slaves
For Free White Males and Females, reports the number of persons under 10, 10-15, 16-25, 26-44, 45-

Geographic Levels::   Nation, states, Territories, Counties, Parish, Township, Town, or City
Data:   Sex, Age, Foreigners not naturalized, Slaves, Free colored persons, All other persons except Indians not taxed
For Free White Males and Females, reports the number of persons under 10, 10-15, 16-25, 26-44, 45- ; for Males the number of those 16-17 is recorded
For Slaves and Free colored persons, sex and age groups are reported:  under age 14, 14-25, 26-44, 45-.

Geographic Levels:   Nation, states, Territories, Counties, Ward, Town, Township, Parish, Precinct, Hundred or District
Data: Sex and Age of Free White Persons, Slaves, Free Colored Persons; Numbers of deaf, dumb, blind white persons, colored and slaves; Number of Aliens (foreigners not naturalized)
Age ranges reported for Free White Persons by sex: under 5, 5-9, 10-14, 15-19, 20-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, 70-79, 80-89, 90-99, 100+
Age ranges reported for Slaves, and Free Colored Persons, both by sex: under 10, 10-23, 24-35, 36-54, 55-99, 100+
Deaf and dumb totals for all White Persons, Slaves and Colored, reported by age ranges: under 14, 14-24, 25+
Blind White Persons, and Blind Slaves and Colored totals
White Aliens (Foreigners not naturalized) total
Prefixed by a "Schedule of the Whole Number of Persons" with county- level figures from 1790, 1800, 1810, and 1820.

Geographic Levels: Nation, states, Territories, Counties, Ward, Town, Township, Parish, Precinct, Hundred or District
Data: Sex and Age of Free White Persons, Free Colored Persons, Slaves; Numbers of deaf, dumb, blind, insane white persons, colored persons; Numbers of persons employed in seven categories; Numbers of schools and educational attainment
Age ranges reported for Free White Persons by sex: under 5, 5-9, 10-14, 15-19, 20-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, 70-79, 80-89, 90-99, 100+
Age ranges reported for Free Colored Persons, and Slaves, both by sex: under 10, 10-23, 24-35, 36-54, 55-99, 100+
Deaf and dumb totals for White Persons, and Colored, reported by age ranges: under 14, 14-24, 25+
Blind totals for White Persons, and Colored
Insane totals at Private and Public charge for White Persons, and Colored
Employment - Persons employed in Mining; Agriculture; Commerce; Manufactures and trade; Navigation of the ocean; Navigation of canals, lakes and rivers; Learned professions and engineers; Military pensioners
Education - Totals for Universities/colleges, Number of students, Academies/grammar schools, Number of scholars, Primary/common schools, Number of scholars, Scholars at public charge, White persons over 20 who cannot read or write

Geographic Levels: Nation, states, Territories, Counties; Nation-wide tables of all Counties, Districts, and Parishes; and of all Places
Data: The topics covered by the 1850 census increased significantly over those in previous censuses.
A table finding guide (Index to all of the subjects treated of in the state tables (p. vii) is included for the first time.
Data, usually at the county level, is presented in fourteen topical tables for each state.
  -   I. Population by counties--Classification of ages and color--Aggregates
  -   II. Population by subdivisions of counties
  -   III. Nativities of the population
  -   IV. Births, marriages, deaths, dwellings, and families
  -   V. Progress of population from 1790 to 1850
  -   VI. Deaf and dumb, blind, insane, and idiotic
  -   VII. Colleges, academies, schools, &c
  -   VIII. Attending school during the year as returned by families
  -   IX. Adults in the State who cannot read and write
  -   X. Professions, occupations, and trades of the male population
  -   XI. Agriculture, farms and implements, stock, products, home manufactures, &c
  -   XII. Newspapers and periodicals
  -   XIII. Libraries other than private
  -   XIV. Churches, church property, &c
See the table headers to identify statistics that include age ranges of persons.
The 1850 census is an important one.   This volume abstracts previous census legislation from 1790 to 1850, introduces new questions for social statistics, for occupations, and includes data on immigration, the weather, and Indian population by tribe for 1789, 1825, and 1853.
Geographic Levels: States, Territories, Counties; Nation-wide table of Cities, Towns, Townships, Hundreds, &c
California state census of 1852 is included.
Data: Subject matter is first organized in five categories with national and state data:
  -   I. Territory
  -   II. Population
      - figures for White, Free Colored, Slave, Aggregate
      - records Families and dwellings; Sex; Age; Births, Marriages and Deaths; Deaf and Dumb, Blind, Insane, &c.; Occupations; Nativities
  -   III. Moral and Social Condition
  -   IV. Industry
      - Agriculture, Manufactures, Commerce, Internal Improvements
  -   V. Property, Revenue, Taxation, etc.
  -   VI. contains Statistical Detail of Cities, Towns, and Counties

v. 1. Population of the United States in 1860
v. 2. Agriculture of the United States in 1860
v. 3. Manufactures of the United States in 1860
v. 4. Statistics of the United States, (including mortality, property, & c.) in 1860.

Data: First half the volume contains Mortality statistics. Second half contains Miscellaneous statistics:

  • Banks and Insurance
  • Real and Personal Estate
  • Public Press
  • Railroads of the U.S.
  • Canal and River Improvements
  • Families and Free Population
  • Religious Statistics
  • Educational Statistics
  • Libraries in the U.S.
  • Schools, Colleges, etc.

 

v. 1. Statistics of the population of the United States (PDF)
v. 2. Vital statistics of the United States (PDF)
v. 3. Statistics of the wealth and industry of the United States 
v. 4. Compendium of the ninth census (June 1, 1870) (PDF)

Geographic Levels: Nation, States, Territories, Counties, Civil Divisions less than counties

Data: Presents 33 tables on various topics:

  • Population, 1870-1790, for States and Territories for White, Colored, Free colored, Slave, Chinese, and Indian
  • Population by County for the same groups
  • Population by Civil Divisions of counties for White and Colored (1870-1850), and Native and Foreign (1870)
  • Nativity at various geographies
  • School attendance and Illiteracy, various geographies
  • Schools, 1870-1850, various geographies
  • Libraries, 1870-1850
  • Newspapers and Periodicals, 1870-1850
  • Churches, 1870-1850
  • Pauperism and Crime, 1870-1850
  • Areas, Families, and Dwellings, various geographies
  • Sex and Age compilations, various geographies
  • Persons in Occupational classes, various geographies

Geographic Levels: Nation, States, Territories, Counties, Civil Divisions less than counties

Data: Presents 36 tables on various topics:

  • Population, 1860-1880, for States and Territories for White, Colored, Japanese, Chinese, and Civilized Indian
  • Population by County for the same groups and years
  • Population for Cities and towns over 4000 population for White and Colored (1870-1880), and Native and Foreign (1870-1880)
  • Nativity at various geographies
  • Sex and Nativity, aggregate
  • Population by Ages, Special and Select
  • Areas, Dwellings, and Families
  • Foreign Parentage
  • Population of Alaska
  • Occupational tables
  • Newspapers and Periodicals
  • Public Schools
  • Illiteracy
  • Defective, Dependent, and Delinquent Classes

Report of the Mortality and Vital Statistics of the United States, 

Most tables have 1880 statistics only; the first table has 1860-1880 data

  • State and 50 Principal Cities Tables
  • Chinese and Indian tables
  • Causes of Death
  • Morbidity or Sick Rates
  • Births, Birth Rates, and Life Tables
  • Ages of Living Population

Report of the Defective, Dependent, and Delinquent Classes of the Population of the United States

Data: Statistics at various geographic levels on

  • Insane
  • Idiotic
  • Blind
  • Deaf and Dumb
  • Homeless Children
  • Paupers
  • Crime

Compendium of the Tenth Census, Pt. 1 and 2

Data: Statistics at various geographic levels on

  • Population
  • Agriculture
  • Manufactures
  • Power Used in Manufactures
  • Mining
  • Railroads, Steam Craft, Canals, Telegraphs, and Telephones
  • Occupations
  • Fisheries
  • Foreign Parentage
  • Areas, Dwellings, and Families
  • Alaska
  • Life Insurance
  • Fire and Marine Insurance
  • Valuation and Taxation
  • Public Indebtedness
  • Newspapers and Periodicals
  • Public Schools
  • Illiteracy
  • Defective, Dependent, and Delinquent Classes
  • Mortality

Report on Population of the United States, Pt. 1

Geographic Levels: Nation, States, Territories, Counties, Minor Civil Divisions, Cities, Towns, Villages, and Boroughs

Data: Presents 95 tables on various topics:

  • Population, 1790-1890, for States Territories, Counties
  • Population, 1880-1890, for Minor Civil Divisions
  • Population, 1790-1890, for Cities with 1890 Populations of 25,000 and more
  • Population, 1880-1890, for Towns with 1890 Populations of 1,000 and more
  • Sex, General Nativity, and Color
  • State or Territory of Birth
  • Country of Birth
  • Foreign Parentage
  • School, Militia, and Voting Age
  • Conjugal Condition
  • Dwellings and Family
  • Alaska
  • Ages
  • School Attendance
  • Illiteracy
  • Can Not Speak English
  • Citizenship of Foreign Born Males 21+
  • Occupations
  • Soldiers and Widows
  • Inmates of Soldiers' Homes

Report on the Insane, Feeble-minded, Deaf and Dumb, and Blind in the United States

Data: Statistics at various geographic levels and sexes on

  • Insane
  • Feeble-Minded
  • Deaf and Dumb
  • Blind

Report on Crime, Pauperism, and Benevolence in the United States

Data: Statistics on various topics:

  • Inmates of All Institutions
  • Prisoners
  • Juvenile Offender
  • Paupers in Almshouses
  • Part 2 contains tables on the above topics by different geographies and sexes

Report on Vital and Social Statistics in the United States

Data:

  • Pt. 1. Tables of Ratios and Death Rates, 1890
  • Pt. 2. Statistics for 28 Large Cities, 1890
  • Pt. 3. General Tables of Death, 1890, in various relations
  • Pt. 4. General Tables of Death, 1890, and for 6-year registration area, in various relations

Report on the Population and Resources of Alaska

Data: Contents in two parts:

Pt. 1. Population, Geography and Topography, and Social Statistics

  • Territory and District figures
  • Indians of Alaska
  • Villages, Homes, Families, and Conjugal Condition
  • Churches, Schools, Illiteracy, and Language

Pt. 2. Resources and Industries

  • Fur, Fisheries, Mines, Commerce
  • Historical Review of the 1880s

Report on Indians Taxed and Indians Not Taxed in the United States (except Alaska)

 Data: 

  • Introduction; Historical Review
  • Policy and Administration of Indian Affairs
  • Population, Educational, Land, and Vital and Social Statistics of Indians
  • Condition of Indians Taxed and Indians Not Taxes
    • Tables for each State and Territory
  • Indian Wars and Their Cost
  • Depredation Claims
  • Liabilities of the U.S. to Indians
  • Legal Status of Indians
  • Census of Indians in Canada, 1890

Abstract of the Eleventh Census: 1890. (2nd edition, revised and enlarged publ. 1896)

Data:

  • Population
  • Agriculture
  • Manufactures
  • Fisheries
  • Mineral Industries
  • Transportation
  • Insurance
  • Wealth, Debt, and Taxation
  • Real Estate Mortgages
  • Farms and Homes: Proprietorship
  • Education
  • Churches
  • Mortality
  • Insane, Feeble-Minded, Deaf and Dumb, and Blind
  • Crime, Pauperism, and Benevolence
  • Indians
  • Alaska

Compendium of the Eleventh Census: 1890

Contents:

  • Population
  • Dwellings and Families
  • Alaska
  • Vital and Social Statistics
  • Educational and Church Statistics
  • Wealth, Debt, and Taxation
  • Mineral Industries
  • Insurance
  • Foreign Born Population
  • Manufactures
  • Population (additional topics)
  • Agriculture
  • Manufactures (by state and industry)
  • Fisheries
  • Transportation
  • Wealth, Debt, and Taxation
  • Real Estate Mortgages
  • Farms and Homes
  • Indians 

Vol. 1 contains 92 tables on various topics:

  • Population, 1790-1900, for States, Territories, and Counties
  • Population, 1890-1900, for Minor Civil Divisions
  • Population, 1790-1900, for Cities with 1900 Populations of 25,000 and more
  • Population, 1890-1900, for 1900 Incorporated Towns
  • Sex, General Nativity, and Color
  • Chinese and Japanese, 1890-1900
  • Native/Foreign born, White/Colored, 1900
  • State or Territory of Birth
  • Country of Birth
  • Foreign Parentage
  • Citizenship and Year in U.S.

Vol. 2 contains 115 tables on these topics:

  • Ages
  • School, Militia, and Voting Ages
  • Conjugal Condition
  • School Attendance
  • Illiteracy
  • Can Not Speak English
  • Occupations
  • Dwellings and Families
  • Proprietorship of Homes

Vol. 1, General Report and Analysis, contains chapters on:

  • Number and Distribution of Inhabitants
  • Color or Race, Nativity, and Parentage
  • Sex Distribution
  • Age Distribution
  • Marital Conduct
  • State of Birth of the Native Population
  • Country of Birth of the Foreign-Born Population
  • Country of Origin of the Foreign-Born White Stock
  • Mother Tongue of the Foreign White Stock
  • Year of Immigration of the Foreign-Born Population
  • Voting Age, Militia Age, and Naturalization
  • School Attendance
  • Illiteracy
  • Inability to Speak English
  • Dwellings and Families
  • Ownership of Homes

Vols. 2-3, Reports by State and Territory, contains chapters on:

  • Population, 1890-1910, for Minor Civil Divisions
  • Population, 1890-1910, for Incorporated Places
  • Composition and Characteristics for
    • State and Counties
    • Cities 25,000+
    • Cities 10,000-25,000
    • Places 2,500-10,000
    • Ward of Cities 50,000+

Vol. 4, Occupation Statistics, contains 6 tables for persons 10+ years old engaged in specified occupations:

  • Total persons
  • Total persons, by sex
  • Total persons, by sex, for cities 100,000+
  • Total persons, by sex, for cities 25,000-100,000
  • Total persons, by sex, by territories
  • Total persons, by age periods, color or race, nativity, and parentage, and sex

Contents of Volumes 5-13:

  • Vol. 5
    • Agriculture 1909 and 1910: General report and analysis
  • Vol. 6
    • Agriculture 1909 and 1910: Reports by states, with statistics for counties, Alabama-Montana
  • Vol. 7
    • Agriculture 1909 and 1910: Reports by states, with statistics for counties, Nebraska-Wyoming, Alaska, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico
  • Vol. 8
    • Manufactures 1909: General report and analysis
  • Vol. 9
    • Manufactures 1909: Reports by states, with statistics for principal cities
  • Vol. 10
    • Manufactures 1909: Reports for principal industries
  • Vol. 11
    • Mines and quarries 1909: General report and analysis
  • Vol. 12
    • Statistical atlas of the United States
  • Vol. 13
    • Indian population in the United States and Alaska, 1910

Data: Vol. 1, Number and Distribution of Inhabitants, has 54 tables, including:

  • Population and Area, 1850-1920, for Counties
  • Population, 1900-1920, for Urban & Rural portions of Counties
  • Population, 1900-1920, for Incorporated Places
  • Population, 1920, for Wards of Incorporated Places
  • Population, 1900-1920, for Cities and Incorporated Places by size:
    • 25,000 or more
    • 10,000 to 25,000
    • 5,000 to 10,000
    • 2,500 to 5,000
  •  Population, 1900-1920, for County Minor Civil Divisions
  • Population, 1920 and earlier, for Outlying Possessions by Civil Division

Vol. 2, General Report and Analytical Tables, contains 16 chapters on:

  • Color or Race, Nativity, and Parentage
  • Sex Distribution
  • Age Distribution
  • Marital Condition
  • State of Birth of the Native Population
  • Country of Birth of the Foreign-Born Population
  • Year of Immigration of the Foreign-Born Population
  • Citizenship of the Foreign-Born Population
  • Country of Origin of the Foreign White Stock
  • Mother Tongue of the Foreign White Stock
  • School Attendance
  • Illiteracy
  • Inability to Speak English
  • Dwellings and Families
  • Ownership of Homes
  • General Statistics of Population, by Counties

Vol. 3, Composition and Characteristics of the Population by States contains:

  • 13 tables per state
  • Data reported for state, county, city, and wards
  • Subject matter is that given above for v. 2
  • Territory data for Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa, Panama Canal Zone

Vol. 4, Occupations, contains 8 chapters:

  • Enumeration and Classification of Occupations
  • Number and Sex of Occupied Persons
  • Color or Race, Nativity, and Parentage of Occupied Persons
  • Age of Occupied Persons
  • Children of Gainful Occupations
  • Marital Condition of Occupied Women
  • Males and Females in Selected Occupations
  • Occupation Statistics for Alaska, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico

Contents of additional volumes (reprint edition):

  • Vol. 5. Agriculture: general report and analytical tables
  • Vol. 6, Pt. 1. Agriculture: reports for states with statistics ... the Northern states ...
  • Vol. 6, Pt. 2. Agriculture: reports for states with statistics ... the Southern states ...
  • Vol. 6, Pt. 3. Agriculture: reports for states with statistics ... the Western and outlying possessions ...
  • Vol. 7. Irrigation and drainage: general report and analytical tables and reports for states , with statistics for counties
  • Vol. 8. Manufactures 1919: general report and analytical tables
  • Vol. 9, Pt. 1. Manufactures 1919: reports for states with statistics for principal cities (Alabama-Nebraska)
  • Vol. 9, Pt. 2. Manufactures 1919: reports for states with statistics for principal cities (Nevada-Wyoming)
  • Vol. 10. Manufactures 1919: reports for selected industries
  • Vol. 11. Mines and quarries 1919: general report and analytical tables and reports for states and selected industries
  • Vol. 12. Statistical atlas of the United States

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