Except when work-for-hire rules apply. The author's employer owns work(s) if:
An author-owner is free to assign copyright to anyone, so a written contract can change these basic rules. As an example, many publishers require assignment of copyright as a condition of publication
Policies, such as the U.T. System Intellectual Property Policy can also change the ownership rules.
Collaborations in online environments usually involve:
In order to be joint authors of a work, each person must:
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