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UGS 302: Surveillance: An Introduction - Browne

Citation Elements

How to decode a citation

In order to properly cite sources, you need to recognize the type of source you are using (book, chapter from a book, article, etc.) and what each part of the citation repreents.

Here are some examples:

RAAT, W. Dirk, (2012) “World History, MesoAmerica, and the Native American Southwest by W. Dirk Raat”, History Compass 10/7 (2012): 537–548

This is an article from a journal.  All articles from periodicals (magazines, newspapers and journals) will have volume and/or issue numbers.

  • RAAT, W. Dirk refers to the author.
  • "World History, MesoAmerica and..." refers to the article title.
  • History Compass refers to the journal title.
  • 10/7 refers to a volume and issue number. 
  • 537-548 refers to the page numbers.

Geis, Gilbert, and Ivan Bunn. 1997. A Trial of Witches: A Seventeenth-Century Witchcraft Prosecution. London: Routledge

This is a book. I know it is a book because it has a place of publication (London).

  • Geis, Gilbert and Ivan Bunn refer to the authors.
  • 1997 refers to the date of publication.
  • A Trial of Witches...refers to the book title.
  • London refers to the place of publication.
  • Routledge refers to the publisher.
MORSE, Richard (1988) “Ciites and People” Rethinking the Latin American City, edited by Richard Morse and Jorge E. Hardoy (Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press) pp. 3-20.
This is a chapter from a book type called an edited collection, where numerous authors contribute and editors assemble the book. I know it is a book because it has a place of publication (Baltimore) and I know it is a chapter because it has both the chapter name and book name. 
  • Morse, Richard refers to the author.
  • "Cities and People" refers to the name of the chapter.
  • Rethinking the Latin American City refers to the name of the book.
  • Edited by... refers to the editors.
  • Baltimore refers to the place of publication.
  • John Hopkins... refers to the publisher
  • pp 3-20 refers to the chapter's page numbers.



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