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MUS 213M: History of Music I / Dell'Antonio

Annotated Bibliography

What is an Annotated Bibiography?

An annotated bibliography is a list of your sources that includes two parts: the citation and the annotation.

1. Citation: Provide a citation for your source using an approved citation format (Chicago; APA; MLA). 

2. Annotation: Under each citation, provide a short paragraph or a couple of sentences that explains the source and your reasons for using it in your project. Your annotation should briefly do the following:

  • Summarize: What is the source about? Keep it brief, just the main point is fine.
  • Assess/Evaluate: What kind of source is this? How do you know it's credible?
  • Reflect: How is this source relevant and useful in your particular project? What does this source help you to do or argue? This is the most important part of your annotation.

Remember to check your syllabus and course materials for the specific requirements of your assignment.

Learn more about annotated bibliographies from Purdue OWL.

Word Choice & Annotated Bibliographies

Some language for talking about texts and arguments:

It is sometimes challenging to find the vocabulary in which to summarize and discuss a text. Here is a list of some verbs for referring to texts and ideas that you might find useful:

account for        clarify                describe          exemplify       indicate          question     
analyze compare depict exhibit investigate recognize
argue conclude determine explain judge reflect
assess criticize distinguish frame justify refer to
assert defend evaluate identify narrate report
assume define emphasize illustrate persuade review
claim demonstrate examine imply propose suggest


The evidence indicates that . . .

The article assesses the effect of . . .

The author identifies three reasons for . . .

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