Primary sources are produced by participants or direct observers of an issue, event or time period. These sources may be recorded during the event or later on, by a participant reflecting upon the event. In some cases, it will be difficult to obtain the original source, so you may have to rely on copies (photocopies, microfilm, digital copies). Copies or transcriptions of a primary source still count as a primary source.
Some examples of primary sources include:
To find primary sources in the following databases, you may have to refine your search by date (e.g., by limiting search results to a date range of interest, such as 1800-1850), or limit your results to formats of particular interest (such as newspapers). For further guidance, please consider the points in this LibGuide from Princeton.
Print indexes can help you find older medical articles:
Before online PubMed came into existence, there were print medical journal article indexes. Here is a brief history:
These indexes may be found in print and digital format in the following collections:
The UT Libraries has historical back issues of several medical journals, including:
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders is a publication produced by the American Psychiatric Association, primarily intended to be used by mental health practitioners to diagnosis and treat mental disorders. Historically, it has been controversial and problematic, and at times, used in harmful ways against marginalized groups. Older editions of the DSM are potentially useful to scholars in Health Humanities as primary sources.
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