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History

Primary Sources

What is a Primary Source?

Primary sources are produced by participants or direct observers of an issue, event or time period. These sources may be recorded during the event or later on, by a participant reflecting upon the event. In some cases, it will be difficult to obtain the original source, so you may have to rely on copies (photocopies, microfilm, digital copies). Copies or transcriptions of a primary source still count as a primary source.  

Some examples of primary sources include:

  • Newspapers
  • Speeches
  • Correspondence
  • Government documents
  • Legal documents
  • Public opinion polls
  • Personal materials, including letters, diaries, interviews, memoirs, autobiographies, and oral histories
  • Images
  • Works of art (novels, plays, paintings, etc.)

Primary Sources in the Library Catalog

Many primary source materials can be found in the library catalog, including newspapers, government documents, personal materials, and images. You can limit your search to specific types of primary source material by typing d: and the type of source you are looking for.

Example: If you are looking for interviews about Watergate, search: watergate d:interviews 

Screenshot of Keyword search for primary sources with example watergate d:sources

 

 

How to Analyze Primary Sources

While primary sources are often desirable for the raw, non-interpreted information they provide, it is important to analyze them for your research. Ask yourself these questions:

  • Who is the creator and what was their relationship to the event or issue?
  • Why did the creator produce this source?
  • Was the source for personal use?  For a large audience?
  • Was the source intended to be public (newspaper) or private (correspondence)?
  • How neutral was the creator?  What biases or interests might have influenced how the source was created?
  • Can the source be substantiated by other primary sources? Can you confirm what the creator is saying?

UT Map Collection

The PCL Map Collection includes more than 250,000 maps! Visit them in person or see digitized maps here

The Distribution of the Principal European Languages 1911 From Historical Atlas by William R. Shepherd, 1911.

 

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