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Citation Managers for Research Organization

Organizational Features

EndNote's Organizational Features



1. First, This EndNote page highlights the many features the creators want you to know about: EndNote 20 product details.

2. On your computer, an EndNote library consists of two parts: filename.enl and (a folder).

3. The workspace of your EndNote Library/Database is organized (shown here in the Windows version) to:

  • Show an overview of the library's contents and a preview of individual citations/records.
  •  Allow searching to find citations in your library.
  • Let you put records into groups, either automatically based on a feature (such as author) or as you decide to add them.
  • Allow connection to outside products for finding citations to add to your library.


EndNote interface Windows

From: Clarivate. 2022. EndNote 20 Library Overview. Accessed 9/14/2022 from 

4. PDFs and other attachments can be added to records.  They are stored in the "" folder.

Attachments may be found and attached

  • Manually by you,
  • Or by using the EndNote "Find Full Text" tool.


Here (Mac version) showing a preview of a citation with the a PDF shown attached.

Endnote pdf save

Using "My Groups"

As EndNote describes, "Groups make it easy to break a large library into subsets for later viewing. A group simply points to a subset of references that already exist in the library."

  • Groups are subsets of your references within your EndNote Library You manually choose which references go into which groups.  References can be placed in more than one group. Groups can be further organized into Group Sets. 
  • A "Smart Group" contains records which are automatically added based on a feature you define.  That feature might be, for example, a keyword or an author. So any record with that particular keyword or author is automatically added to the smart group upon being imported into the library.
  • "Create from Groups" groups together other groups using the AND, OR, or NOT Boolean operators.  For instance, a Group C that is defined with the parameters "Group A AND Group B" is a set of records that are located in both Group A and Group B. 

Creating a group:

You have options:

1. Look for the Groups tab to create a group.


endnote groups


endnote create group


2. Go to "MY GROUPS" in the left column and right click to see options and to make a selection:

endnote my groups from left column


Note on "Smart Groups" --- you decide what should be collected and the software automatically adds the records:

endnote new smart set

Finding and Deleting Duplicates

EndNote 20: Steps to remove duplicates from your EndNote library

  1. With the Library window open, click on the All References group to show all references.
  2. From the Library menu, choose Find Duplicates.
    EndNote will display a Find Duplicates dialog, where you can compare duplicates and decide which version to keep and which to delete.
  3. For each set of duplicates, you have the option to:
    • Click Keep This Record to save the preferred reference and discard the other in the trash..
    • Click Skip to leave both references in the library, intact. They will appear in a temporary Duplicate References group, so you can review them later.
    • Click Cancel to automatically instruct EndNote to select the most recently-entered version(s) of each duplicate reference as the one(s) to be removed. If you move the selected references to the trash, they will be removed from the library, removing all duplicate copies EndNote found. All duplicates  and the original copy of each reference will appear in a temporary Duplicate References group if you wish to review them. Do NOT simply move all references in the Duplicate References group to the trash unless you want to remove duplicates and the originals.

Find Full-Text (see Special Note below)

EndNote's Find Full Text feature works to find the PDF or text that goes with a citation in your library

To take advantage of library subscriptions from off campus, be sure to set up "authentication" to use the OpenURL server.

  • On Windows, go to the Edit menu and choose Preferences. On a Mac, go to the EndNote menu and choose Preferences.
  • Go to the "Find Full Text" option
  • Check "OpenURL" and make the "OpenURL Path": 
  • For off-campus access complete "Authenticate" with:
  • You may select the option to "Automatically invoke Find Full Text on newly imported references."

To find and retrieve full text:

  • Select the reference(s) to which you want to add full text.
  • Go to the References menu.
  • Select "Find Full Text." If off campus, you will be asked to authenticate with your UT EID and password.
  • If you are see an intermediary UT Libraries databases page, click on the "Continue" button.
  • While EndNote processes your request, you can follow progress near the bottom of the Groups column, under a temporary "Find Full Text" group set, where each record will appear in the "Found PDF" or the "Not found" groups.


NOTE:  If the Find Full Text feature doesn't work well for you, here are some other options:

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