Established in 1909 as the successor to the Texas Geological Survey and the Texas Mineral Survey, the BEG is a research entity of UT Austin. It also functions as the State Geological Survey, a quasi-State agency, and the Bureau Director serves as the State Geologist. Advisory, technical, and informational services relating to the resources and geology of Texas are provided by the Bureau to governmental agencies, private industry, and the general public. The Bureau conducts basic and applied research projects in energy and mineral resources, coastal and environmental studies, land resources, geologic mapping, and other research programs in areas such as hydrogeology, basin analysis, and geochemistry. It also maintains a Geophysical Log Facility with well logs deposited with the Texas Railroad Commission.
Since its founding in 1972, the University of Texas Institute for Geophysics (UTIG) conducts research in four broad themes: climate, energy, marine geosciences, seismology and tectonophysics, and planetary and polar geophysics.